Skill 1-5

REVIEW EXERCISE (Skills 1-5): Study each of the passages and choose the best answers to the questions that follow.

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-4)

Lincoln’s now famous Gettysburg Address was not, on the occasion of its delivery, recognized as the masterpiece that it is today. Lincoln was not even the primary speaker at the ceremonies, held at the height of the Civil War in 1863, to dedicate the battlefield at Gettysburg. Line The main speaker was orator Edward Everett, whose two-hour speech was followed by Lincoln’s (5) shorter remarks. Lincoln began his small portion of the program with the words that today are immediately recognized by most Americans: “Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.” At the time of the speech, little notice was given to what Lincoln had said, and Lincoln considered his appearance at the ceremonies rather unsuccessful. After his (10) speech appeared in print, appreciation for his words began to grow, and today it is recognized as one of the all-time greatest speeches.

 

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 5-9)

Hay fever is a seasonal allergy to pollens. The term “hay fever,” however, is a less than adequate description since such an attack can be brought on by sources other than hay- producing grasses and since an attack of this allergy does not incur fever. Line the causes of hay fever can be quite varied. Hay fever is generally caused by air-borne (5) pollens, particularly ragweed pollen. The amount of pollen in the air is largely dependent on geographical location, weather, and season. In the eastern section of the United States, for example, there are generally three periods when pollen from various sources can cause intense hay fever suffering: in the springtime months of March and April, when pollen from trees is prevalent, in the summer months of June and July, when grass pollen fills the air, and at the end (10) of August, when ragweed pollen is at its most concentrated levels.

What results from an attack of hay fever is not a fever. Instead, a person with hay fever will suffer symptoms such as red and itching eyes, a swollen and runny nose, and repeated bouts of sneezing.

 

PASSAGE THREE (Questions 10-14)

Theories about the movement of the continents have evolved over time as the ability to conduct scientific study of the continents has improved. Thus, today’s theory of plate tectonics, rather than contradicting its predecessor, had its roots in the older theory of continental drift. Line According to the theory of continental drift, the continents are not fixed in position but (5) instead move slowly across the surface of the earth, constantly changing in position relative to one another. This theory was first proposed in the eighteenth century when mapmakers noticed how closely the continents of the earth fit together when they were matched up. It was suggested then that the present-day continents had once been one large continent that had broken up into pieces which drifted apart.
(10) Today the modern theory of plate tectonics has developed from the theory of continental drift. The theory of plate tectonics suggests that the crust of the earth is divided into six large, and many small, tectonic plates that drift on the lava that composes the inner core of the earth. These plates consist of ocean floor and continents that quite probably began breaking up and moving relative to one another more than 200 million years ago.

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