Skill 12

EXERCISE 12: Study each of the passages and choose the best answers to the questions that follow.

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2)

Beavers generally live in family clusters consisting of six to ten members. One cluster would probably consist of two adults, one male and one female, and four to eight young beavers, or kits. A female beaver gives birth each spring to two to four babies at a time. These baby beavers live Line with their parents until they are two years old. In the springtime of their second year they are (5) forced out of the family group to make room for the new babies. These two-year-old beavers then proceed to start new family clusters of their own.


PASSAGE TWO (Question 3)

Chamber music received its name because it was originally intended to be performed in small rooms in private homes rather than huge concert halls or theaters. Today it has evolved into small ensemble music in which each performer in the ensemble plays an individual part. Line The compositions written for this type of performance can easily be classified into three
(5) distinct periods, each with its style of music and instrumentation. In the earliest period (1450-1650), the viol and other instrumental families developed considerably, and instrumental music took its first steps toward equal footing with vocal music. In the second period (1650-1750), trio sonatas dominated. These ensemble compositions were often written for two violins and a cello; the harpsichord was also featured in various compositions of this period. In (10) the modern period (after 1750), the preponderance of chamber music was written for the string quartet, an ensemble composed of two violins, a viola, and a cello.


PASSAGE THREE (Questions 4-5)

It is common practice to coat metals such as iron and steel with a protective layer of zinc or an alloy made from zinc mixed with aluminum, cadmium, or tin in a process known as “galvanization.” The purpose of galvanization is to prevent the corrosion of the iron or steel.
Line The most common method to galvanize metal is the hot-dip galvanizing process. In this (5) process, the iron or steel is dipped into a hot bath of a zinc alloy to form a protective coating approximately .003 inches thick. Another method of galvanizing that is not as common is the process known as electro galvanizing; in this process the metal is placed in a solution composed of zinc sulphate and water and is then charged electrically. This causes a thin layer of zinc to coat the metal.

(10) Zinc is effective in galvanizing metals such as iron or steel in that zinc reacts more easily with oxygen than iron does. If iron is unprotected, it reacts with the oxygen in the air to form iron oxide, or rust, which leads to the corrosion of the iron. If, however, the iron is coated with zinc, as it is in the galvanization process, then it is the zinc rather than the iron which interacts with the oxygen to form zinc oxide, and the iron is not subject to corrosion.

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