Skill 3

EXERCISE 3: Study each of the passages and choose the best answers to the questions that follow.

PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-3)

Ice ages, those periods when ice covered extensive areas of the Earth, are known to have occurred at least six times. Past ice ages can be recognized from rock strata that show evidence of foreign materials deposited by moving walls of ice or melting glaciers. Ice ages can also be recognized from land formations that have been produced from moving walls of ice, such as U- shaped valleys, sculptured landscapes, and polished rock faces.


PASSAGE TWO (Questions 4-5)

The human heart is divided into four chambers, each of which serves its own function in the cycle of pumping blood. The atria are the thin-walled upper chambers that gather blood as it flows from the veins between heartbeats. The ventricles are the thick-walled lower chambers that Line receive blood from the atria and push it into the arteries with each contraction of the heart. The (5) left atrium and ventricle work separately from those on the right. The role of the chambers on the right side of the heart is to receive oxygen-depleted blood from the body tissues and send it on to the lungs; the chambers on the left side of the heart then receive the oxygen-enriched blood from the lungs and send it back out to the body tissues.


PASSAGE THREE (Questions 6-8)

The Golden Age of Railroads refers to the period from the end of the Civil War to the beginning of World War I when railroads flourished and, in fact, maintained a near monopoly in mass transportation in the United States. One of the significant developments during the period Line was the notable increase in uniformity, particularly through the standardization of track gauge (5) and time. At the end of the Civil War, only about half of the nation’s railroad track was laid at what is now the standard gauge of 1.4 meters; much of the rest, particularly in the southern states, had a 1.5-meter gauge.

During the postwar years, tracks were converted to the 1.4-meter gauge, and by June 1, 1886, the standardization of tracks was completed, resulting in increased efficiency and (10) economy in the rail system. A further boon to railroad efficiency was the implementation of standard time in 1883. With the adoption of standard time, four time zones were established across the country, thus simplifying railroad scheduling and improving the efficiency of railroad service.

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